Thursday, February 23, 2017

Igneous Rocks

Our fifth Geology lesson with our co-op was all about igneous rocks.  As I taught, we put together a poster (I am kicking myself that I forgot to photograph it) so they could better visualize what I was saying.  First, we talked about the composition of the earth's crust.  Igneous rocks make up the majority.  We placed this image in our lapbooks.
Next, we talked about how igneous rocks are formed.  The word igneous comes from the Latin word ignis, which means "fire."  This was their clue.  They immediately guessed volcanoes.  I then told them that volcanoes were named after the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.

For a snack, I made volcano cookies.  I simply baked some dark colored cookies, then once baked, cut them into triangles.  After they cooled a bit, I used cookie icing and red decorating sugar to add lava.
 Volcano cookies!  They loved them.  I served them with ice-cold water bottles "to cool down" their mouths.  They thought this was funny.
We then talked about how igneous rocks form from volcanoes and the difference between those that are intrusive (formed slowly, below the surface) and extrusive (formed more quickly, on or above the surface).  We then looked at samples of each.  

First, we hit on a couple of intrusive rocks.  Our first was granite.  Pink granite (like the sample below) gets its pink color from the mineral presence of lepidolite.  This type of rock makes up the inner walls of the Great Pyramids.
Next, we compared the first sample to these of white granite.  You can see the large, well-formed crystals that are characteristic of intrusive igneous rocks.  Granite is the most plentiful igneous rock on dry land.  (The most plentiful worldwide is an extrusive rock which we'll get to farther down on this post.)
Our next intrusive sample was diorite.  Like granite, it has those well-developed crystals ingrained.  Diorite was found in a lot of the weapons used by the Incas and the Mayans.
After we observed each sample, we added it to our igneous rocks pocket that I printed from  https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Rock-Cycle-Interactive-Notebook-2544056.  These went into our lapbooks.
For those samples that I wanted them to add to their pockets that were not provided by the site's download (like diorite), I used this Dover Learning About Rocks sticker book to make slips of paper for them to add that rock's sticker to.  They would then add the slips to their pockets with the other samples (see above).  (We will use these Dover books to do the same for sedimentary and metamorphic rocks when we learn about those, too.  You can purchase these Dover books at http://store.doverpublications.com/0486412911.html for only $1.99 apiece.)  
Then it was time to discuss some extrusive igneous rocks.  The first we covered was basalt (seen below).  As you can see from the picture, the crystals in extrusive rocks are much smaller than those of intrusive.  This is because they form more quickly on the surface, cooling and hardening faster than those rocks below the surface.  Basalt is the most common rock in the Earth's crust.  This is because this rock erupts from deep sea volcanoes and since our planet is covered by more water than land, you can see why this one would be more common on our crust.  This rock has also been found on the moon and on Mars.
 Next, we looked at vesicular basalt.  It has holes in it that were formed by bubbles in the lava.  We had fun comparing its weight to the regular basalt sample.
 Next up?  Pumice!
 We talked about what we use pumice for ...
 ... but more importantly, how this is the rock that floats!  Of course, we tested it.  It didn't disappoint!
 Here it is, floating next to basalt, which sunk immediately.
 The last extrusive igneous rock we covered was obsidian.  It is commonly known as "volcanic glass" because of its glassy appearance.  Native Americans used it for arrowheads, tools, and knives.  It is still used in some surgical blades.
 These are considered pure samples.  The one on the right is uncleaved.
An impure obsidian is this sample of snowflake obsidian.  These white crystals you see are considered impurities, crystals of a mineral called cristobalite, which the lava picks up as it flows over the earth's surface.
After observing all of our samples, we finished filling out our igneous rocks pocket then completed this printable (from the same site we printed the pocket) to review.
 I had printed the information to go under each tab ahead of time to save them from too much writing.
 They loved putting them together and adding them to our lapbooks.
I also made this sticker for them to add ...
... and printed this image from online.  They love decorating their lapbooks with little additions like these.
For homework, I gave them this review sheet I found at
https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/igneous-rocks-worksheet-6317035.  (It's a free download.)
Also, I got the idea for writing narratives in the point of view of an igneous rock at https://www.nextlesson.org/project_details/My%20Life%20as%20an%20Igneous%20Rock.../8f24586dde2e59dbf039cf7fdc9fda35f7d7d0aa0ed972e638e82e05.  From that idea, I made writing sheets and gave each type of igneous rock a clever name so every student got a different rock to write about.  We had Miss Polly Pumice ...
... Gregory Granite ...
... Obadiah Obsidian ...
... and Miss Basil Basalt.
They laughed as I handed out their narratives.  I can't wait to see what they return with.  Next up?  We will do a quick igneous rocks lab to identify mystery rocks (like we did with minerals), then have a field trip to a local park known for its rock structures!  Check back with us!

Friday, February 17, 2017

Cephalopods

Lesson 10 of Apologia's Exploring Creation with Zoology 2: Swimming Creatures of the Fifth Day is all about "Cephalopods," creatures that include the octopus, squid, the nautilus, and the cuttlefish.  Maggie really enjoyed learning about the funny critters in this lesson.
With every lesson in our text, we use the Junior Zoology 2 Notebooking Journal to record all that we learn.
Cephalopods are amazing animals.  They are incredibly intelligent and have incredible defenses, including camouflage, jet propulsion, and the ability to expel ink!  We learned a lot from this lesson.  (I had no idea that the cuttlebones you see in bird cages are actually from a cuttlefish.)  I think Maggie was most intrigued by the squid.
 Learning about how optopuses express their emotions in color was something Maggie found hilarious.  I enjoyed learning about their complex eyes.
After some journaling in our notebook, we watched a quick YouTube video on the intelligence of octopuses at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VLkKiVIBxXU (below).
I put together this "Video Review" sheet for her to complete after she watched it.
We put the completed sheet in her notebook, too.
I love all the activities in these Apologia notebooks to apply their learning from the text.  We add applicable stickers to our pages to add some color.  The stickers above and below (of the octopus and the chiton) I had ordered in a book called Sea Life Stickers by Valerie Kells from Dover (http://store.doverpublications.com/).
We watched a second video on cuttlefish at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcwfTOg5rnc (below).  It is a GREAT video for this lesson.  Maggie loved it.
Just like with the octopus video, I had her fill out a worksheet to review the film.
The text challenged us to complete a simple experiment to demonstrate buoyancy and how cephalopods rise and fall in water.  For the same, we used a large, clear, plastic bottle, an eyedropper, a pipe cleaner, a googly eye, glue, and water.  First, we decorated our eyedropper with the pipe cleaner and googly eye to resemble a cephalopod.  
 Cute!
 Once we balanced the water level in the eyedropper outside the bottle, we put our cephalopod in the bottle full of water (its "habitat") and closed the bottle tightly with its lid.  When we squeezed the bottle, water filled the dropper and it began to sink.  When we released the bottle, water exited the dropper and our cephalopod floated at the top.  Some cephalopods (like the nautilus) can control their buoyancy in the same way.  The can take in water to become heavier, making them sink, or expel water to become lighter, making them rise.  Cool.
We recorded the results of our experiment in our journal.
Finally, it was time to add cephalopods to our ocean box!  Maggie worked on the squid (her favorite cephalopod).
I think she did a fantastic job!
Daddy made her octopus.
They fit right in!
When we visited The Estuarium at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab last month, Mags picked out an octopus in the gift shop.  I think during this lesson, she snuggled with it more than she had before this study. 
And at our field trip to the Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta a few weeks ago, Mags picked out a squid.  (Of course.)
Next up?  Echinoderms!

Nero and Martyrs of the Early Church

In lessons 4 and 5 of The Mystery of History, Volume II, we learned about "Nero" and "Martyrs of the Early Church," respectively.  This spans the time of about A.D. 37 to 257.  In these two lessons, we learned about the early Roman emperors, the Colosseum, and the many hardships the early Christians faced.  This post just shows some of the supplemental literature we used for these two lessons.
I use this book, The Usborne Encyclopedia of World History, CONSTANTLY in our history studies because of the many great, colorful illustrations (see below).
It illustrates the chariot races that Nero loved so much.
 Here is a picture of the Colosseum during its height of popularity.
 "Many Christians were thrown to the lions for public entertainment."
 Here is a picture depicting the Christians in the catacombs under the streets of Rome, meeting in secret to pray and worship together.
Next, we read The Gladiators by Tomas Tuma.
It's a really neat, book, with a board book inside, shaped like a Colosseum.
After that, it was onto this Usborne See Inside Ancient Rome flap book.  We studied pages 12-14, featuring the Colosseum in its heyday, and at present, in ruin.
We love Usborne flap books!
Our last supplemental book was this one, National Geographic's Wonders of the Ancient World.  We read "Colosseum at Rome: Monument with a Disreputable History" on pages 92-93 (pictures below).
Maggie enjoyed seeing the pictures of what the Colosseum once looked like versus the ruins of it that stand today.
In this picture, you can see the many chambers that were below the floor level.
After our reading, we watched this video on YouTube of a lyre being played (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zX9kPR29Riw).  It is said that as Rome burned, Nero sat at his window, nonchalantly playing the lyre.
In honor of Polycarp, the Christian martyr who was said to have emitted a sweet aroma as he was burned, "as the breath of incense," we lit some incense (frankincense).
Once it was lit, we prayed for Christian martyrs and persecuted Christians everywhere.
May your faith in our Lord hold fast!